RFC Abstracts

This document defines three new RADIUS attributes. For devices that implement IP port ranges, these attributes are used to communicate with a RADIUS server in order to configure and report IP transport ports as well as mapping behavior for specific hosts. This mechanism can be used in various deployment scenarios such as Carrier-Grade NAT, IPv4/IPv6 translators, Provider WLAN gateway, etc. This document defines a mapping between some RADIUS attributes and IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Information Element identifiers.
RADIUS specifications have used data types for two decades without defining them as managed entities. During this time, RADIUS implementations have named the data types and have used them in attribute definitions. This document updates the specifications to better follow established practice. We do this by naming the data types defined in RFC 6158, which have been used since at least the publication of RFC 2865. We provide an IANA registry for the data types and update the "RADIUS Attribute Types" registry to include a Data Type field for each attribute. Finally, we recommend that authors of RADIUS specifications use these types in preference to existing practice. This document updates RFCs 2865, 3162, 4072, 6158, 6572, and 7268.
This document presents the source-address-dependent routing (SADR) problem space from the host's perspective. Both multihomed hosts and hosts with multiple interfaces are considered. Several network architectures are presented to illustrate why source address selection and next-hop resolution are needed in view of source-address-dependent routing.
This document specifies an optional OSPF protocol extension to represent router metrics in a multi-access network in two parts: the metric from the router to the network and the metric from the network to the router. For such networks, the router-to-router metric for OSPF route computation is the sum of the two parts. This document updates RFC 2328.
This document discusses both use cases and operational experience with Multipath TCP (MPTCP) in real networks. It lists several prominent use cases where Multipath TCP has been considered and is being used. It also gives insight to some heuristics and decisions that have helped to realize these use cases and suggests possible improvements.
This document describes an HTTP-based protocol that provides a programmatic interface for accessing data defined in YANG, using the datastore concepts defined in the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF).
Clock synchronization protocols are very widely used in IP-based networks. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) has been commonly deployed for many years, and the last few years have seen an increasingly rapid deployment of the Precision Time Protocol (PTP). As time-sensitive applications evolve, clock accuracy requirements are becoming increasingly stringent, requiring the time synchronization protocols to provide high accuracy. This memo describes a multipath approach to PTP and NTP over IP networks, allowing the protocols to run concurrently over multiple communication paths between the master and slave clocks, without modifying these protocols. The multipath approach can significantly contribute to clock accuracy, security, and fault tolerance. The multipath approach that is presented in this document enables backward compatibility with nodes that do not support the multipath functionality.
This document specifies a way to complement IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Data Records with Management Information Base (MIB) objects, avoiding the need to define new IPFIX Information Elements for existing MIB objects that are already fully specified.
This document defines how to use the Diffie-Hellman algorithms "X25519" and "X448" as well as the signature algorithms "Ed25519" and "Ed448" from the IRTF CFRG elliptic curves work in JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE).
This document discusses the applicability of the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks.
This document updates RFC 5761 by clarifying the SDP offer/answer negotiation of RTP and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) multiplexing. It makes it clear that an answerer can only include an "a=rtcp-mux" attribute in a Session Description Protocol (SDP) answer if the associated SDP offer contained the attribute.
Cable modems based on Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS) provide broadband Internet access to over one hundred million users worldwide. In some cases, the cable modem connection is the bottleneck (lowest speed) link between the customer and the Internet. As a result, the impact of buffering and bufferbloat in the cable modem can have a significant effect on user experience. The CableLabs DOCSIS 3.1 specification introduces requirements for cable modems to support an Active Queue Management (AQM) algorithm that is intended to alleviate the impact that buffering has on latency-sensitive traffic, while preserving bulk throughput performance. In addition, the CableLabs DOCSIS 3.0 specifications have also been amended to contain similar requirements. This document describes the requirements on AQM that apply to DOCSIS equipment, including a description of the "DOCSIS-PIE" algorithm that is required on DOCSIS 3.1 cable modems.
Bufferbloat is a phenomenon in which excess buffers in the network cause high latency and latency variation. As more and more interactive applications (e.g., voice over IP, real-time video streaming, and financial transactions) run in the Internet, high latency and latency variation degrade application performance. There is a pressing need to design intelligent queue management schemes that can control latency and latency variation, and hence provide desirable quality of service to users.
This document describes elliptic curve signature scheme Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA). The algorithm is instantiated with recommended parameters for the edwards25519 and edwards448 curves. An example implementation and test vectors are provided.
This document describes the use of Curve25519 and Curve448 for ephemeral key exchange in the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2).
This document describes a simple protocol for the delivery of real- time events to user agents. This scheme uses HTTP/2 server push.
This document describes a simple and efficient mechanism to detect data-plane failures in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switched Paths (LSPs). It defines a probe message called an "MPLS echo request" and a response message called an "MPLS echo reply" for returning the result of the probe. The MPLS echo request is intended to contain sufficient information to check correct operation of the data plane and to verify the data plane against the control plane, thereby localizing faults.
This document describes expected IPv6 host behavior in a scenario that has more than one prefix, each allocated by an upstream network that is assumed to implement BCP 38 ingress filtering, when the host has multiple routers to choose from. It also applies to other scenarios such as the usage of stateful firewalls that effectively act as address-based filters. Host behavior in choosing a first-hop router may interact with source address selection in a given implementation. However, the selection of the source address for a packet is done before the first-hop router for that packet is chosen. Given that the network or host is, or appears to be, multihomed with multiple provider-allocated addresses, that the host has elected to use a source address in a given prefix, and that some but not all neighboring routers are advertising that prefix in their Router Advertisement Prefix Information Options, this document specifies to which router a host should present its transmission. It updates RFC 4861.
This document describes problems that a Validating DNS resolver, stub-resolver, or application might run into within a non-compliant infrastructure. It outlines potential detection and mitigation techniques. The scope of the document is to create a shared approach to detect and overcome network issues that a DNSSEC software/system may face.
In IPv6-only provider networks, transporting IPv4 packets encapsulated in IPv6 is a common solution to the problem of IPv4 service continuity. A number of differing functional approaches have been developed for this, each having their own specific characteristics. As these approaches share a similar functional architecture and use the same data plane mechanisms, this memo specifies a DHCPv6 option, whereby a single instance of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) can interwork with all of the standardized and proposed approaches to providing encapsulated IPv4-in-IPv6 services by providing a prioritization mechanism.
This specification updates RFC 4944 to introduce a new context switch mechanism for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) compression, expressed in terms of Pages and signaled by a new Paging Dispatch.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being extended to the edge of operator networks including the network access nodes. Separately, network access nodes such as Passive Optical Network (PON) Optical Line Terminations (OLTs) have evolved to support first-mile access protection, where one or more physical OLTs provide first-mile diversity to the customer edge. Multihoming support is needed on the MPLS-enabled PON OLT to provide resiliency for provided services. This document describes the Multi-Chassis PON (MC-PON) protection architecture in MPLS and also specifies the Inter-Chassis Communication Protocol (ICCP) extension to support it.
This document provides context and a report on the workshop on "Root Causes and Mitigation of Name Collisions", which took place in London, United Kingdom, from March 8 to 10, 2014. The main goal of the workshop was to foster a discussion on the causes and potential mitigations of domain name collisions. This report provides a small amount of background and context; then, it provides a summary of the workshop's discussions.
This document contains a specification of three YANG modules and one submodule. Together they form the core routing data model that serves as a framework for configuring and managing a routing subsystem. It is expected that these modules will be augmented by additional YANG modules defining data models for control-plane protocols, route filters, and other functions. The core routing data model provides common building blocks for such extensions -- routes, Routing Information Bases (RIBs), and control-plane protocols.
This document discusses the security implications of the generation of IPv6 atomic fragments and a number of interoperability issues associated with IPv6 atomic fragments. It concludes that the aforementioned functionality is undesirable and thus documents the motivation for removing this functionality from an upcoming revision of the core IPv6 protocol specification (RFC 2460).
This document states clearly that when a DNS resolver receives a response with a response code of NXDOMAIN, it means that the domain name which is thus denied AND ALL THE NAMES UNDER IT do not exist.
This document recommends implementation and configuration best practices for Internet Key Exchange Protocol version 2 (IKEv2) Responders, to allow them to resist Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks. Additionally, the document introduces a new mechanism called "Client Puzzles" that helps accomplish this task.
This document provides recommendations for the implementation of password-based cryptography, covering key derivation functions, encryption schemes, message authentication schemes, and ASN.1 syntax identifying the techniques.
This document provides recommendations for the implementation of public-key cryptography based on the RSA algorithm, covering cryptographic primitives, encryption schemes, signature schemes with appendix, and ASN.1 syntax for representing keys and for identifying the schemes.
It is desirable to minimize traffic disruption caused by changing IP address during a mobility event. One mechanism to minimize disruption is to expose a shorter network path to the mobility event so that only the local network elements are aware of the changed IP address and the remote peer is unaware of the changed IP address.
This document defines an RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Extended Report (XR) block that allows the reporting of burst/gap discard metrics independently of the burst/gap loss metrics for use in a range of RTP applications.
This document presents a high-level overview architecture for building data-center Network Virtualization over Layer 3 (NVO3) networks. The architecture is given at a high level, showing the major components of an overall system. An important goal is to divide the space into individual smaller components that can be implemented independently with clear inter-component interfaces and interactions. It should be possible to build and implement individual components in isolation and have them interoperate with other independently implemented components. That way, implementers have flexibility in implementing individual components and can optimize and innovate within their respective components without requiring changes to other components.
This document describes how to extend the Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES) Logical Functional Block (LFB) topology across Forwarding Elements (FEs) by defining the inter-FE LFB class. The inter-FE LFB class provides the ability to pass data and metadata across FEs without needing any changes to the ForCES specification. The document focuses on Ethernet transport.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switched Path (LSP) ping and traceroute are methods used to test Equal-Cost Multipath (ECMP) paths. Ping is known as a connectivity-verification method and traceroute is known as a fault-isolation method, as described in RFC 4379. When an LSP is signaled using the Entropy Label (EL) described in RFC 6790, the ability for LSP ping and traceroute operations to discover and exercise ECMP paths is lost for scenarios where Label Switching Routers (LSRs) apply different load-balancing techniques. One such scenario is when some LSRs apply EL-based load balancing while other LSRs apply load balancing that is not EL based (e.g., IP). Another scenario is when an EL-based LSP is stitched with another LSP that can be EL based or not EL based.
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is an application-level protocol for distributed printing using Internet tools and technologies. This document describes a simplified model consisting of abstract objects, attributes, and operations that is independent of encoding and transport. The model consists of several objects, including Printers and Jobs. Jobs optionally support multiple Documents.
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is an application-level protocol for distributed printing using Internet tools and technologies. This document defines the rules for encoding IPP operations, attributes, and values into the Internet MIME media type called "application/ipp". It also defines the rules for transporting a message body whose Content-Type is "application/ipp" over HTTP and/or HTTPS. The IPP data model and operation semantics are described in "Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Model and Semantics" (RFC 8011).
This document specifies two encryption types and two corresponding checksum types for Kerberos 5. The new types use AES in CTS mode (CBC mode with ciphertext stealing) for confidentiality and HMAC with a SHA-2 hash for integrity.
This document captures the semantics of the "Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement" part of the Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Request Routing interface, i.e., the desired meaning of "Footprint" and "Capabilities" in the CDNI context and what the "Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface (FCI)" offers within CDNI. The document also provides guidelines for the CDNI FCI protocol. It further defines a Base Advertisement Object, the necessary registries for capabilities and footprints, and guidelines on how these registries can be extended in the future.
This document describes the part of the Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Control interface that allows a CDN to trigger activity in an interconnected CDN that is configured to deliver content on its behalf. The upstream CDN can use this mechanism to request that the downstream CDN pre-position metadata or content or to request that it invalidate or purge metadata or content. The upstream CDN can monitor the status of activity that it has triggered in the downstream CDN.
The Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Metadata interface enables interconnected Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) to exchange content distribution metadata in order to enable content acquisition and delivery. The CDNI Metadata associated with a piece of content provides a downstream CDN with sufficient information for the downstream CDN to service content requests on behalf of an upstream CDN. This document describes both a base set of CDNI Metadata and the protocol for exchanging that metadata.
This document specifies a resource record (RR) for the Domain Name System (DNS) and how to use it with the Host Identity Protocol (HIP). This RR allows a HIP node to store in the DNS its Host Identity (HI), the public component of the node public-private key pair; its Host Identity Tag (HIT), a truncated hash of its public key (PK); and the domain names of its rendezvous servers (RVSs). This document obsoletes RFC 5205.
This document defines a rendezvous extension for the Host Identity Protocol (HIP). The rendezvous extension extends HIP and the HIP Registration Extension for initiating communication between HIP nodes via HIP rendezvous servers. Rendezvous servers improve reachability and operation when HIP nodes are multihomed or mobile. This document obsoletes RFC 5204.
This document specifies a registration mechanism for the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) that allows hosts to register with services, such as HIP rendezvous servers or middleboxes. This document obsoletes RFC 5203.
The Certificate (CERT) parameter is a container for digital certificates. It is used for carrying these certificates in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) control packets. This document specifies the certificate parameter and the error signaling in case of a failed verification. Additionally, this document specifies the representations of Host Identity Tags (HITs) in X.509 version 3 (v3).
This document provides extensions for Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE), including GMPLS, to support automatic collection of Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) information for the TE link formed by a Label Switched Path (LSP).
This document presents requirements for the deployment of the NFSv4 protocols for the construction of an NFSv4 file namespace in environments with multiple NFSv4 Domains. To participate in an NFSv4 multi-domain file namespace, the server must offer a multi-domain-capable file system and support RPCSEC_GSS for user authentication. In most instances, the server must also support identity-mapping services.
This document describes the use of a well-known Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) community for destination-based blackholing in IP networks. This well-known advisory transitive BGP community named "BLACKHOLE" allows an origin Autonomous System (AS) to specify that a neighboring network should discard any traffic destined towards the tagged IP prefix.
This document describes some aspects of the "prep tool" that is expected to be created when the new xml2rfc version 3 specification is deployed.
In order to support the internationalization of protocols and a more diverse Internet community, the RFC Series must evolve to allow for the use of non-ASCII characters in RFCs. While English remains the required language of the Series, the encoding of future RFCs will be in UTF-8, allowing for a broader range of characters than typically used in the English language. This document describes the RFC Editor requirements and gives guidance regarding the use of non-ASCII characters in RFCs.
This document specifies SVG 1.2 RFC -- an SVG profile for use in diagrams that may appear in RFCs -- and considers some of the issues concerning the creation and use of such diagrams.