RFC Abstracts

RFC7985 - Security Threats to Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF)
This document analyzes security threats to Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF), including vulnerabilities of duplicate packet detection and relay set selection mechanisms. This document is not intended to propose solutions to the threats described.
RFC7984 - Locating Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Servers in a Dual-Stack IP Network
RFC 3263 defines how a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) implementation, given a SIP Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), should locate the next-hop SIP server using Domain Name System (DNS) procedures. As SIP networks increasingly transition from IPv4-only to dual-stack, a quality user experience must be ensured for dual- stack SIP implementations. This document updates the DNS procedures described in RFC 3263 for dual-stack SIP implementations in preparation for forthcoming specifications for applying "Happy Eyeballs" principles to SIP.
RFC7983 - Multiplexing Scheme Updates for Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) Extension for Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
This document defines how Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), RTP Control Protocol (RTCP), Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN), Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN), and ZRTP packets are multiplexed on a single receiving socket. It overrides the guidance from RFC 5764 ("SRTP Extension for DTLS"), which suffered from four issues described and fixed in this document.
RFC7982 - Measurement of Round-Trip Time and Fractional Loss Using Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)
A host with multiple interfaces needs to choose the best interface for communication. Oftentimes, this decision is based on a static configuration and does not consider the path characteristics, which may affect the user experience.
RFC7981 - IS-IS Extensions for Advertising Router Information
This document defines a new optional Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) TLV named CAPABILITY, formed of multiple sub-TLVs, which allows a router to announce its capabilities within an IS-IS level or the entire routing domain. This document obsoletes RFC 4971.
RFC7980 - A Framework for Defining Network Complexity
Complexity is a widely used parameter in network design, yet there is no generally accepted definition of the term. Complexity metrics exist in a wide range of research papers, but most of these address only a particular aspect of a network, for example, the complexity of a graph or software. While it may be impossible to define a metric for overall network complexity, there is a desire to better understand the complexity of a network as a whole, as deployed today to provide Internet services. This document provides a framework to guide research on the topic of network complexity as well as some practical examples for trade-offs in networking.
RFC7979 - Response to the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) Request for Proposals on the IANA Protocol Parameters Registries
The U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) solicited a request from the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to propose how the NTIA should end its oversight of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions. After broad consultations, ICANN in turn created the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group. That group solicited proposals for the three major IANA functions: names, numbers, and protocol parameters. This document contains the IETF response to that solicitation for protocol parameters. It was included in an aggregate response to the NTIA alongside those for names and numbering resources that are being developed by their respective operational communities. A reference to that response may be found in the introduction, and additional correspondence is included in the Appendix.
RFC7978 - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): RBridge Channel Header Extension
The IETF TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) protocol includes an optional mechanism (specified in RFC 7178) called RBridge Channel for the transmission of typed messages between TRILL switches in the same campus and the transmission of such messages between TRILL switches and end stations on the same link. This document specifies extensions to the RBridge Channel protocol header to support two features as follows: (1) a standard method to tunnel payloads whose type can be indicated by Ethertype through encapsulation in RBridge Channel messages; and (2) a method to support security facilities for RBridge Channel messages. This document updates RFC 7178.
RFC7977 - The WebSocket Protocol as a Transport for the Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP)
The WebSocket protocol enables two-way real-time communication between clients and servers in situations where direct access to TCP and UDP is not available (for example, from within JavaScript in a web browser). This document specifies a new WebSocket subprotocol as a reliable transport mechanism between Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) clients and relays to enable usage of MSRP in new scenarios. This document normatively updates RFCs 4975 and 4976.
RFC7976 - Updates to Private Header (P-Header) Extension Usage in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Requests and Responses
The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has identified cases where different SIP private header extensions referred to as "P-" header fields, and defined in RFC 7315, need to be included in SIP requests and responses currently not allowed according to RFC 7315. This document updates RFC 7315, in order to allow inclusion of the affected "P-" header fields in such requests and responses.
RFC7975 - Request Routing Redirection Interface for Content Delivery Network (CDN) Interconnection
The Request Routing interface comprises (1) the asynchronous advertisement of footprint and capabilities by a downstream Content Delivery Network (CDN) that allows an upstream CDN to decide whether to redirect particular user requests to that downstream CDN; and (2) the synchronous operation of an upstream CDN requesting whether a downstream CDN is prepared to accept a user request and of a downstream CDN responding with how to actually redirect the user request. This document describes an interface for the latter part, i.e., the CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface.
RFC7974 - An Experimental TCP Option for Host Identification
Recent RFCs have discussed issues with host identification in IP address-sharing systems, such as address/prefix-sharing devices and application-layer proxies. Potential solutions for revealing a host identifier in shared address deployments have also been discussed. This memo describes the design, deployment, and privacy considerations for one such solution in operational use on the Internet today that uses a TCP option to transmit a host identifier.
RFC7973 - Assignment of an Ethertype for IPv6 with Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (LoWPAN) Encapsulation
When carried over Layer 2 technologies such as Ethernet, IPv6 datagrams using Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (LoWPAN) encapsulation as defined in RFC 4944 must be identified so the receiver can correctly interpret the encoded IPv6 datagram. The IETF officially requested the assignment of an Ethertype for that purpose and this document reports that assignment.
RFC7972 - Entertainment Identifier Registry (EIDR) URN Namespace Definition
Entertainment Identifier Registry (EIDR) Identifiers are used for the globally unique identification of motion picture and television content. This document defines the formal Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace Identifier (NID) for EIDR Identifiers.
RFC7971 - Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Deployment Considerations
Many Internet applications are used to access resources such as pieces of information or server processes that are available in several equivalent replicas on different hosts. This includes, but is not limited to, peer-to-peer file sharing applications. The goal of Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) is to provide guidance to applications that have to select one or several hosts from a set of candidates capable of providing a desired resource. This memo discusses deployment-related issues of ALTO. It addresses different use cases of ALTO such as peer-to-peer file sharing and Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) and presents corresponding examples. The document also includes recommendations for network administrators and application designers planning to deploy ALTO, such as recommendations on how to generate ALTO map information.
RFC7970 - The Incident Object Description Exchange Format Version 2
The Incident Object Description Exchange Format (IODEF) defines a data representation for security incident reports and indicators commonly exchanged by operational security teams for mitigation and watch and warning. This document describes an updated information model for the IODEF and provides an associated data model specified with the XML schema. This new information and data model obsoletes RFCs 5070 and 6685.
RFC7969 - Customizing DHCP Configuration on the Basis of Network Topology
DHCP servers have evolved over the years to provide significant functionality beyond that described in the DHCP base specifications. One aspect of this functionality is support for context-specific configuration information. This memo describes some such features and explains their operation.
RFC7968 - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): Using Data Labels for Tree Selection for Multi-Destination Data
TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) uses distribution trees to deliver multi-destination frames. Multiple trees can be used by an ingress Routing Bridge (RBridge) for flows, regardless of the VLAN, Fine-Grained Label (FGL), and/or multicast group of the flow. Different ingress RBridges may choose different distribution trees for TRILL Data packets in the same VLAN, FGL, and/or multicast group. To avoid unnecessary link utilization, distribution trees should be pruned based on one or more of the following: VLAN, FGL, or multicast destination address. If any VLAN, FGL, or multicast group can be sent on any tree, for typical fast-path hardware, the amount of pruning information is multiplied by the number of trees, but there is limited hardware capacity for such pruning information.
RFC7967 - Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) Option for No Server Response
There can be machine-to-machine (M2M) scenarios where server responses to client requests are redundant. This kind of open-loop exchange (with no response path from the server to the client) may be desired to minimize resource consumption in constrained systems while updating many resources simultaneously or performing high-frequency updates. CoAP already provides Non-confirmable (NON) messages that are not acknowledged by the recipient. However, the request/response semantics still require the server to respond with a status code indicating "the result of the attempt to understand and satisfy the request", per RFC 7252.
RFC7966 - Security at the Attribute-Value Pair (AVP) Level for Non-neighboring Diameter Nodes: Scenarios and Requirements
This specification specifies requirements for providing Diameter security at the level of individual Attribute-Value Pairs (AVPs).
RFC7965 - LDP Extensions for Pseudowire Binding to Label Switched Path (LSP) Tunnels
Many transport services require that user traffic, in the form of Pseudowires (PWs), be delivered via either a single co-routed bidirectional tunnel or two unidirectional tunnels that share the same routes. This document defines an optional extension to the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) that enables the binding between PWs and the underlying Traffic Engineering (TE) tunnels. The extension applies to both single-segment and multi-segment PWs.
RFC7964 - Solutions for BGP Persistent Route Oscillation
Routing information reduction by BGP Route Reflection or Confederation can result in persistent internal BGP route oscillations with certain routing setups and network topologies. This document specifies two sets of additional paths that can be used to eliminate these route oscillations in a network.
RFC7963 - RSVP-TE Extension for Additional Signal Types in G.709 Optical Transport Networks (OTNs)
RFCs 4328 and 7139 provide signaling extensions in Resource ReserVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) to control the full set of Optical Transport Network (OTN) features. However, these specifications do not cover the additional Optical channel Data Unit (ODU) containers defined in G.Sup43 (ODU1e, ODU3e1, and ODU3e2). This document defines new Signal Types for these additional containers.
RFC7962 - Alternative Network Deployments: Taxonomy, Characterization, Technologies, and Architectures
This document presents a taxonomy of a set of "Alternative Network Deployments" that emerged in the last decade with the aim of bringing Internet connectivity to people or providing a local communication infrastructure to serve various complementary needs and objectives. They employ architectures and topologies different from those of mainstream networks and rely on alternative governance and business models.
RFC7961 - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): Interface Addresses APPsub-TLV
This document specifies a TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) IS-IS application sub-TLV that enables the reporting by a TRILL switch of sets of addresses. Each set of addresses reports all of the addresses that designate the same interface (port) and also reports the TRILL switch by which that interface is reachable. For example, a 48-bit MAC (Media Access Control) address, IPv4 address, and IPv6 address can be reported as all corresponding to the same interface reachable by a particular TRILL switch. Such information could be used in some cases to synthesize responses to, or bypass the need for, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) protocol, or the flooding of unknown MAC addresses.
RFC7960 - Interoperability Issues between Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC) and Indirect Email Flows
Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance (DMARC) introduces a mechanism for expressing domain-level policies and preferences for email message validation, disposition, and reporting. However, the DMARC mechanism enables potentially disruptive interoperability issues when messages do not flow directly from the author's administrative domain to the final Recipients. Collectively, these email flows are referred to as "indirect email flows". This document describes these interoperability issues and presents possible methods for addressing them.
RFC7959 - Block-Wise Transfers in the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a RESTful transfer protocol for constrained nodes and networks. Basic CoAP messages work well for small payloads from sensors and actuators; however, applications will need to transfer larger payloads occasionally -- for instance, for firmware updates. In contrast to HTTP, where TCP does the grunt work of segmenting and resequencing, CoAP is based on datagram transports such as UDP or Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). These transports only offer fragmentation, which is even more problematic in constrained nodes and networks, limiting the maximum size of resource representations that can practically be transferred.
RFC7958 - DNSSEC Trust Anchor Publication for the Root Zone
The root zone of the Domain Name System (DNS) has been cryptographically signed using DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC).
RFC7957 - DISPATCH-Style Working Groups and the SIP Change Process
RFC 5727 defined several processes for the former Real-time Applications and Infrastructure (RAI) area. These processes include the evolution of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and related protocols, as well as the operation of the DISPATCH and SIPCORE working groups. This document updates RFC 5727 to allow flexibility for the area and working group structure, while preserving the SIP change processes. It also generalizes the DISPATCH working group processes so that they can be easily adopted by other working groups.
RFC7956 - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Distributed Layer 3 Gateway
The base TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links) protocol provides optimal pair-wise data frame forwarding for Layer 2 intra-subnet traffic but not for Layer 3 inter-subnet traffic. A centralized gateway solution is typically used for Layer 3 inter-subnet traffic forwarding but has the following issues:
RFC7955 - Management Guidelines for the Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Endpoint Identifier (EID) Block
This document proposes a framework for the management of the Locator/ ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Endpoint Identifier (EID) address block. The framework described relies on hierarchical distribution of the address space, granting temporary usage of prefixes of such space to requesting organizations.
RFC7954 - Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Endpoint Identifier (EID) Block
This document directs IANA to allocate a /32 IPv6 prefix for use with the Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP). The prefix will be used for local intra-domain routing and global endpoint identification, by sites deploying LISP as Endpoint Identifier (EID) addressing space.
RFC7953 - Calendar Availability
This document specifies a new iCalendar (RFC 5545) component that allows the publication of available and unavailable time periods associated with a calendar user. This component can be used in standard iCalendar free-busy lookups, including the iCalendar Transport-independent Interoperability Protocol (iTIP; RFC 5546) free-busy requests, to generate repeating blocks of available or busy time with exceptions as needed.
RFC7952 - Defining and Using Metadata with YANG
This document defines a YANG extension that allows for defining metadata annotations in YANG modules. The document also specifies XML and JSON encoding of annotations and other rules for annotating instances of YANG data nodes.
RFC7951 - JSON Encoding of Data Modeled with YANG
This document defines encoding rules for representing configuration data, state data, parameters of Remote Procedure Call (RPC) operations or actions, and notifications defined using YANG as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) text.
RFC7950 - The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language
YANG is a data modeling language used to model configuration data, state data, Remote Procedure Calls, and notifications for network management protocols. This document describes the syntax and semantics of version 1.1 of the YANG language. YANG version 1.1 is a maintenance release of the YANG language, addressing ambiguities and defects in the original specification. There are a small number of backward incompatibilities from YANG version 1. This document also specifies the YANG mappings to the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF).
RFC7949 - OSPFv3 over IPv4 for IPv6 Transition
This document defines a mechanism to use IPv4 to transport OSPFv3 packets. Using OSPFv3 over IPv4 with the existing OSPFv3 Address Family extension can simplify transition from an OSPFv2 IPv4-only routing domain to an OSPFv3 dual-stack routing domain. This document updates RFC 5838 to support virtual links in the IPv4 unicast address family when using OSPFv3 over IPv4.
RFC7948 - Internet Exchange BGP Route Server Operations
The popularity of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) brings new challenges to interconnecting networks. While bilateral External BGP (EBGP) sessions between exchange participants were historically the most common means of exchanging reachability information over an IXP, the overhead associated with this interconnection method causes serious operational and administrative scaling problems for IXP participants.
RFC7947 - Internet Exchange BGP Route Server
This document outlines a specification for multilateral interconnections at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs). Multilateral interconnection is a method of exchanging routing information among three or more External BGP (EBGP) speakers using a single intermediate broker system, referred to as a route server. Route servers are typically used on shared access media networks, such as IXPs, to facilitate simplified interconnection among multiple Internet routers.
RFC7946 - The GeoJSON Format
GeoJSON is a geospatial data interchange format based on JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). It defines several types of JSON objects and the manner in which they are combined to represent data about geographic features, their properties, and their spatial extents. GeoJSON uses a geographic coordinate reference system, World Geodetic System 1984, and units of decimal degrees.
RFC7945 - Information-Centric Networking: Evaluation and Security Considerations
This document presents a number of considerations regarding evaluating Information-Centric Networking (ICN) and sheds some light on the impact of ICN on network security. It also surveys the evaluation tools currently available to researchers in the ICN area and provides suggestions regarding methodology and metrics.
RFC7944 - Diameter Routing Message Priority
When making routing and resource allocation decisions, Diameter nodes currently have no generic mechanism to determine the relative priority of Diameter messages. This document addresses this by defining a mechanism to allow Diameter endpoints to indicate the relative priority of Diameter transactions. With this information, Diameter nodes can factor that priority into routing, resource allocation, and overload abatement decisions.
RFC7943 - A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque Interface Identifiers (IIDs) with the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
This document describes a method for selecting IPv6 Interface Identifiers that can be employed by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) servers when leasing non-temporary IPv6 addresses to DHCPv6 clients. This method is a DHCPv6 server-side algorithm that does not require any updates to the existing DHCPv6 specifications. The aforementioned method results in stable addresses within each subnet, even in the presence of multiple DHCPv6 servers or DHCPv6 server reinstallments. It is a DHCPv6 variant of the method specified in RFC 7217 for IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration.
RFC7942 - Improving Awareness of Running Code: The Implementation Status Section
This document describes a simple process that allows authors of Internet-Drafts to record the status of known implementations by including an Implementation Status section. This will allow reviewers and working groups to assign due consideration to documents that have the benefit of running code, which may serve as evidence of valuable experimentation and feedback that have made the implemented protocols more mature.
RFC7941 - RTP Header Extension for the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Source Description Items
Source Description (SDES) items are normally transported in the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). In some cases, it can be beneficial to speed up the delivery of these items. The main case is when a new synchronization source (SSRC) joins an RTP session and the receivers need this source's identity, relation to other sources, or its synchronization context, all of which may be fully or partially identified using SDES items. To enable this optimization, this document specifies a new RTP header extension that can carry SDES items.
RFC7940 - Representing Label Generation Rulesets Using XML
This document describes a method of representing rules for validating identifier labels and alternate representations of those labels using Extensible Markup Language (XML). These policies, known as "Label Generation Rulesets" (LGRs), are used for the implementation of Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs), for example. The rulesets are used to implement and share that aspect of policy defining which labels and Unicode code points are permitted for registrations, which alternative code points are considered variants, and what actions may be performed on labels containing those variants.
RFC7939 - Definition of Managed Objects for the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol
This document replaces RFC 6779; it contains revisions and extensions to the original document. It defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes objects for configuring parameters of the Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP) process on a router. The extensions described in this document add objects and values to support the NHDP optimization specified in RFC 7466. The MIB module defined in this document, denoted NHDP-MIB, also reports state, performance information, and notifications about NHDP. This additional state and performance information is useful to troubleshoot problems and performance issues during neighbor discovery.
RFC7938 - Use of BGP for Routing in Large-Scale Data Centers
Some network operators build and operate data centers that support over one hundred thousand servers. In this document, such data centers are referred to as "large-scale" to differentiate them from smaller infrastructures. Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements with an emphasis on operational simplicity and network stability. This document summarizes operational experience in designing and operating large-scale data centers using BGP as the only routing protocol. The intent is to report on a proven and stable routing design that could be leveraged by others in the industry.
RFC7937 - Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Logging Interface
This memo specifies the Logging interface between a downstream Content Distribution Network (dCDN) and an upstream CDN (uCDN) that are interconnected as per the CDN Interconnection (CDNI) framework. First, it describes a reference model for CDNI logging. Then, it specifies the CDNI Logging File format and the actual protocol for exchange of CDNI Logging Files.
RFC7936 - Clarifying Registry Procedures for the WebSocket Subprotocol Name Registry
This document clarifies the instructions to IANA for the subprotocol registry set up for WebSockets in RFC 6455.