RFC Abstracts

RFC4990 - Use of Addresses in Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Networks
This document clarifies the use of addresses in Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) networks. The aim is to facilitate interworking of GMPLS-capable Label Switching Routers (LSRs). The document is based on experience gained in implementation, interoperability testing, and deployment.
RFC4988 - Mobile IPv4 Fast Handovers
This document adapts the Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers to improve delay and packet loss resulting from Mobile IPv4 handover operations. Specifically, this document addresses movement detection, IP address configuration, and location update latencies during a handover. For reducing the IP address configuration latency, the document proposes that the new Care-of Address is always made to be the new access router's IP address. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4987 - TCP SYN Flooding Attacks and Common Mitigations
This document describes TCP SYN flooding attacks, which have been well-known to the community for several years. Various countermeasures against these attacks, and the trade-offs of each, are described. This document archives explanations of the attack and common defense techniques for the benefit of TCP implementers and administrators of TCP servers or networks, but does not make any standards-level recommendations. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4986 - Requirements Related to DNS Security (DNSSEC) Trust Anchor Rollover
Every DNS security-aware resolver must have at least one Trust Anchor to use as the basis for validating responses from DNS signed zones. For various reasons, most DNS security-aware resolvers are expected to have several Trust Anchors. For some operations, manual monitoring and updating of Trust Anchors may be feasible, but many operations will require automated methods for updating Trust Anchors in their security-aware resolvers. This document identifies the requirements that must be met by an automated DNS Trust Anchor rollover solution for security-aware DNS resolvers. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4985 - Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Subject Alternative Name for Expression of Service Name
This document defines a new name form for inclusion in the otherName field of an X.509 Subject Alternative Name extension that allows a certificate subject to be associated with the service name and domain name components of a DNS Service Resource Record. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4984 - Report from the IAB Workshop on Routing and Addressing
This document reports the outcome of the Routing and Addressing Workshop that was held by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) on October 18-19, 2006, in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The primary goal of the workshop was to develop a shared understanding of the problems that the large backbone operators are facing regarding the scalability of today's Internet routing system. The key workshop findings include an analysis of the major factors that are driving routing table growth, constraints in router technology, and the limitations of today's Internet addressing architecture. It is hoped that these findings will serve as input to the IETF community and help identify next steps towards effective solutions.
RFC4983 - Fibre Channel Registered State Change Notification (RSCN) MIB
This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes managed objects for information related to the management of Fibre Channel's Registered State Change Notifications (RSCNs). [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4982 - Support for Multiple Hash Algorithms in Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs)
This document analyzes the implications of recent attacks on commonly used hash functions on Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs) and updates the CGA specification to support multiple hash algorithms. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4981 - Survey of Research towards Robust Peer-to-Peer Networks: Search Methods
The pace of research on peer-to-peer (P2P) networking in the last five years warrants a critical survey. P2P has the makings of a disruptive technology -- it can aggregate enormous storage and processing resources while minimizing entry and scaling costs.
RFC4980 - Analysis of Multihoming in Network Mobility Support
This document is an analysis of multihoming in the context of network mobility (NEMO) in IPv6. As there are many situations in which mobile networks may be multihomed, a taxonomy is proposed to classify the possible configurations. The possible deployment scenarios of multihomed mobile networks are described together with the associated issues when network mobility is supported by RFC 3963 (NEMO Basic Support). Recommendations are offered on how to address these issues. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4979 - IANA Registration for Enumservice 'XMPP'
This document requests IANA registration of an Enumservice for XMPP, the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. This Enumservice specifically allows the use of 'xmpp' Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) in the context of E.164 Number Mapping (ENUM). [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4978 - The IMAP COMPRESS Extension
The COMPRESS extension allows an IMAP connection to be effectively and efficiently compressed. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4977 - Problem Statement: Dual Stack Mobility
This document discusses the issues associated with mobility management for dual stack mobile nodes. Currently, two mobility management protocols are defined for IPv4 and IPv6. Deploying both in a dual stack mobile node introduces a number of problems. Deployment and operational issues motivate the use of a single mobility management protocol. This document discusses such motivations. The document also discusses requirements for the Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) and Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) protocol so that they can support mobility management for a dual stack node. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4976 - Relay Extensions for the Message Sessions Relay Protocol (MSRP)
Two separate models for conveying instant messages have been defined. Page-mode messages stand alone and are not part of a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) session, whereas session-mode messages are set up as part of a session using SIP. The Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) is a protocol for near real-time, peer-to-peer exchanges of binary content without intermediaries, which is designed to be signaled using a separate rendezvous protocol such as SIP. This document introduces the notion of message relay intermediaries to MSRP and describes the extensions necessary to use them. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4975 - The Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP)
This document describes the Message Session Relay Protocol, a protocol for transmitting a series of related instant messages in the context of a session. Message sessions are treated like any other media stream when set up via a rendezvous or session creation protocol such as the Session Initiation Protocol. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4974 - Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in Support of Calls
In certain networking topologies, it may be advantageous to maintain associations between endpoints and key transit points to support an instance of a service. Such associations are known as Calls.
RFC4973 - OSPF-xTE: Experimental Extension to OSPF for Traffic Engineering
This document defines OSPF-xTE, an experimental traffic engineering (TE) extension to the link-state routing protocol OSPF. OSPF-xTE defines new TE Link State Advertisements (LSAs) to disseminate TE metrics within an autonomous System (AS), which may consist of multiple areas. When an AS consists of TE and non-TE nodes, OSPF-xTE ensures that non-TE nodes in the AS are unaffected by the TE LSAs. OSPF-xTE generates a stand-alone TE Link State Database (TE-LSDB), distinct from the native OSPF LSDB, for computation of TE circuit paths. OSPF-xTE is versatile and extendible to non-packet networks such as Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) / Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and optical networks. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4972 - Routing Extensions for Discovery of Multiprotocol (MPLS) Label Switch Router (LSR) Traffic Engineering (TE) Mesh Membership
The setup of a full mesh of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE) Label Switched Paths (LSP) among a set of Label Switch Routers (LSR) is a common deployment scenario of MPLS Traffic Engineering either for bandwidth optimization, bandwidth guarantees or fast rerouting with MPLS Fast Reroute. Such deployment may require the configuration of a potentially large number of TE LSPs (on the order of the square of the number of LSRs). This document specifies Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing extensions for Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) so as to provide an automatic discovery of the set of LSRs members of a mesh in order to automate the creation of such mesh of TE LSPs. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4971 - Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Extensions for Advertising Router Information
This document defines a new optional Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) TLV named CAPABILITY, formed of multiple sub-TLVs, which allows a router to announce its capabilities within an IS-IS level or the entire routing domain. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4970 - Extensions to OSPF for Advertising Optional Router Capabilities
It is useful for routers in an OSPFv2 or OSPFv3 routing domain to know the capabilities of their neighbors and other routers in the routing domain. This document proposes extensions to OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 for advertising optional router capabilities. A new Router Information (RI) Link State Advertisement (LSA) is proposed for this purpose. In OSPFv2, the RI LSA will be implemented with a new opaque LSA type ID. In OSPFv3, the RI LSA will be implemented with a new LSA type function code. In both protocols, the RI LSA can be advertised at any of the defined flooding scopes (link, area, or autonomous system (AS)). [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4969 - IANA Registration for vCard Enumservice
This memo registers the Enumservice "vCard" using the URI schemes "http" and "https". This Enumservice is to be used to refer from an ENUM domain name to a vCard instance describing the user of the respective E.164 number.
RFC4968 - Analysis of IPv6 Link Models for 802.16 Based Networks
This document provides different IPv6 link models that are suitable for IEEE 802.16 based networks and provides analysis of various considerations for each link model and the applicability of each link model under different deployment scenarios. This document is the result of a design team (DT) that was formed to analyze the IPv6 link models for IEEE 802.16 based networks. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4967 - Dial String Parameter for the Session Initiation Protocol Uniform Resource Identifier
RFC 3966 explicitly states that 'tel' URIs may not represent a dial string. That leaves no way specify a dial string in a standardized way. Great confusion exists with the SIP URI parameter "user=phone", and specifically, if it can represent a dial string. This memo creates a new value for the user parameter "dialstring", so that one may specify "user=dialstring" to encode a dial string as a 'sip:' or 'sips:' URI. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4966 - Reasons to Move the Network Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) to Historic Status
This document discusses issues with the specific form of IPv6-IPv4 protocol translation mechanism implemented by the Network Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) defined in RFC 2766. These issues are sufficiently serious that recommending RFC 2766 as a general purpose transition mechanism is no longer desirable, and this document recommends that the IETF should reclassify RFC 2766 from Proposed Standard to Historic status. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4965 - CableLabs - IETF Standardization Collaboration
This document describes the collaboration and liaison relationship between the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. (CableLabs). This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4964 - The P-Answer-State Header Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol for the Open Mobile Alliance Push to Talk over Cellular
This document describes a private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) header (P-header) used by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for Push to talk over Cellular (PoC) along with its applicability, which is limited to the OMA PoC application. The P-Answer-State header is used for indicating the answering mode of the handset, which is particular to the PoC application. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4963 - IPv4 Reassembly Errors at High Data Rates
IPv4 fragmentation is not sufficiently robust for use under some conditions in today's Internet. At high data rates, the 16-bit IP identification field is not large enough to prevent frequent incorrectly assembled IP fragments, and the TCP and UDP checksums are insufficient to prevent the resulting corrupted datagrams from being delivered to higher protocol layers. This note describes some easily reproduced experiments demonstrating the problem, and discusses some of the operational implications of these observations. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4962 - Guidance for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key Management
This document provides guidance to designers of Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) key management protocols. The guidance is also useful to designers of systems and solutions that include AAA key management protocols. Given the complexity and difficulty in designing secure, long-lasting key management algorithms and protocols by experts in the field, it is almost certainly inappropriate for IETF working groups without deep expertise in the area to be designing their own key management algorithms and protocols based on Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) protocols. The guidelines in this document apply to documents requesting publication as IETF RFCs. Further, these guidelines will be useful to other standards development organizations (SDOs) that specify AAA key management. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4961 - Symmetric RTP / RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
This document recommends using one UDP port pair for both communication directions of bidirectional RTP and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) sessions, commonly called "symmetric RTP" and "symmetric RTCP". This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4960 - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
This document obsoletes RFC 2960 and RFC 3309. It describes the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). SCTP is designed to transport Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) signaling messages over IP networks, but is capable of broader applications.
RFC4959 - IMAP Extension for Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) Initial Client Response
To date, the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) has used a Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) profile which always required at least one complete round trip for an authentication, as it did not support an initial client response argument. This additional round trip at the beginning of the session is undesirable, especially when round-trip costs are high.
RFC4958 - A Framework for Supporting Emergency Telecommunications Services (ETS) within a Single Administrative Domain
This document presents a framework discussing the role of various protocols and mechanisms that could be considered candidates for supporting Emergency Telecommunication Services (ETS) within a single administrative domain. Comments about their potential usage as well as their current deployment are provided to the reader. Specific solutions are not presented. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4957 - Link-Layer Event Notifications for Detecting Network Attachments
Certain network access technologies are capable of providing various types of link-layer status information to IP. Link-layer event notifications can help IP expeditiously detect configuration changes. This document provides a non-exhaustive catalogue of information available from well-known access technologies. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4956 - DNS Security (DNSSEC) Opt-In
In the DNS security (DNSSEC) extensions, delegations to unsigned subzones are cryptographically secured. Maintaining this cryptography is not always practical or necessary. This document describes an experimental "Opt-In" model that allows administrators to omit this cryptography and manage the cost of adopting DNSSEC with large zones. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4955 - DNS Security (DNSSEC) Experiments
This document describes a methodology for deploying alternate, non-backwards-compatible, DNS Security (DNSSEC) methodologies in an experimental fashion without disrupting the deployment of standard DNSSEC. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4954 - SMTP Service Extension for Authentication
This document defines a Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) extension whereby an SMTP client may indicate an authentication mechanism to the server, perform an authentication protocol exchange, and optionally negotiate a security layer for subsequent protocol interactions during this session. This extension includes a profile of the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) for SMTP.
RFC4953 - Defending TCP Against Spoofing Attacks
Recent analysis of potential attacks on core Internet infrastructure indicates an increased vulnerability of TCP connections to spurious resets (RSTs), sent with forged IP source addresses (spoofing). TCP has always been susceptible to such RST spoofing attacks, which were indirectly protected by checking that the RST sequence number was inside the current receive window, as well as via the obfuscation of TCP endpoint and port numbers. For pairs of well-known endpoints often over predictable port pairs, such as BGP or between web servers and well-known large-scale caches, increases in the path bandwidth-delay product of a connection have sufficiently increased the receive window space that off-path third parties can brute-force generate a viable RST sequence number. The susceptibility to attack increases with the square of the bandwidth, and thus presents a significant vulnerability for recent high-speed networks. This document addresses this vulnerability, discussing proposed solutions at the transport level and their inherent challenges, as well as existing network level solutions and the feasibility of their deployment. This document focuses on vulnerabilities due to spoofed TCP segments, and includes a discussion of related ICMP spoofing attacks on TCP connections. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4952 - Overview and Framework for Internationalized Email
Full use of electronic mail throughout the world requires that people be able to use their own names, written correctly in their own languages and scripts, as mailbox names in email addresses. This document introduces a series of specifications that define mechanisms and protocol extensions needed to fully support internationalized email addresses. These changes include an SMTP extension and extension of email header syntax to accommodate UTF-8 data. The document set also includes discussion of key assumptions and issues in deploying fully internationalized email. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4951 - Fail Over Extensions for Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) "failover"
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a connection-oriented protocol that has a shared state between active endpoints. Some of this shared state is vital for operation, but may be volatile in nature, such as packet sequence numbers used on the L2TP Control Connection. When failure of one side of a control connection occurs, a new control connection is created and associated with the old connection by exchanging information about the old connection. Such a mechanism is not intended as a replacement for an active fail over with some mirrored connection states, but as an aid for those parameters that are particularly difficult to have immediately available. Protocol extensions to L2TP defined in this document are intended to facilitate state recovery, providing additional resiliency in an L2TP network, and improving a remote system's layer 2 connectivity. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4950 - ICMP Extensions for Multiprotocol Label Switching
This memo defines an extension object that can be appended to selected multi-part ICMP messages. This extension permits Label Switching Routers to append MPLS information to ICMP messages, and has already been widely deployed. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4949 - Internet Security Glossary, Version 2
This Glossary provides definitions, abbreviations, and explanations of terminology for information system security. The 334 pages of entries offer recommendations to improve the comprehensibility of written material that is generated in the Internet Standards Process (RFC 2026). The recommendations follow the principles that such writing should (a) use the same term or definition whenever the same concept is mentioned; (b) use terms in their plainest, dictionary sense; (c) use terms that are already well-established in open publications; and (d) avoid terms that either favor a particular vendor or favor a particular technology or mechanism over other, competing techniques that already exist or could be developed. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4948 - Report from the IAB workshop on Unwanted Traffic March 9-10, 2006
This document reports the outcome of a workshop held by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) on Unwanted Internet Traffic. The workshop was held on March 9-10, 2006 at USC/ISI in Marina del Rey, CA, USA. The primary goal of the workshop was to foster interchange between the operator, standards, and research communities on the topic of unwanted traffic, as manifested in, for example, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, spam, and phishing, to gain understandings on the ultimate sources of these unwanted traffic, and to assess their impact and the effectiveness of existing solutions. It was also a goal of the workshop to identify engineering and research topics that could be undertaken by the IAB, the IETF, the IRTF, and the network research and development community at large to develop effective countermeasures against the unwanted traffic. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4947 - Address Resolution Mechanisms for IP Datagrams over MPEG-2 Networks
This document describes the process of binding/associating IPv4/IPv6 addresses with MPEG-2 Transport Streams (TS). This procedure is known as Address Resolution (AR) or Neighbor Discovery (ND). Such address resolution complements the higher-layer resource discovery tools that are used to advertise IP sessions.
RFC4946 - Atom License Extension
This memo defines an extension to the Atom Syndication Format for describing licenses associated with Atom feeds and entries. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4945 - The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX
The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and Public Key Infrastructure for X.509 (PKIX) certificate profile both provide frameworks that must be profiled for use in a given application. This document provides a profile of IKE and PKIX that defines the requirements for using PKI technology in the context of IKE/IPsec. The document complements protocol specifications such as IKEv1 and IKEv2, which assume the existence of public key certificates and related keying materials, but which do not address PKI issues explicitly. This document addresses those issues. The intended audience is implementers of PKI for IPsec. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4944 - Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
This document describes the frame format for transmission of IPv6 packets and the method of forming IPv6 link-local addresses and statelessly autoconfigured addresses on IEEE 802.15.4 networks. Additional specifications include a simple header compression scheme using shared context and provisions for packet delivery in IEEE 802.15.4 meshes. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4943 - IPv6 Neighbor Discovery On-Link Assumption Considered Harmful
This document describes the historical and background information behind the removal of the "on-link assumption" from the conceptual host sending algorithm defined in Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). According to the algorithm as originally described, when a host's default router list is empty, the host assumes that all destinations are on-link. This is particularly problematic with IPv6-capable nodes that do not have off-link IPv6 connectivity (e.g., no default router). This document describes how making this assumption causes problems and how these problems outweigh the benefits of this part of the conceptual sending algorithm. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4942 - IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security Considerations
The transition from a pure IPv4 network to a network where IPv4 and IPv6 coexist brings a number of extra security considerations that need to be taken into account when deploying IPv6 and operating the dual-protocol network and the associated transition mechanisms. This document attempts to give an overview of the various issues grouped into three categories:
RFC4941 - Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6
Nodes use IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration to generate addresses using a combination of locally available information and information advertised by routers. Addresses are formed by combining network prefixes with an interface identifier. On an interface that contains an embedded IEEE Identifier, the interface identifier is typically derived from it. On other interface types, the interface identifier is generated through other means, for example, via random number generation. This document describes an extension to IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration for interfaces whose interface identifier is derived from an IEEE identifier. Use of the extension causes nodes to generate global scope addresses from interface identifiers that change over time, even in cases where the interface contains an embedded IEEE identifier. Changing the interface identifier (and the global scope addresses generated from it) over time makes it more difficult for eavesdroppers and other information collectors to identify when different addresses used in different transactions actually correspond to the same node. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4940 - IANA Considerations for OSPF
This memo creates a number of OSPF registries and provides guidance to IANA for assignment of code points within these registries. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.