RFC Abstracts

RFC4968 - Analysis of IPv6 Link Models for 802.16 Based Networks
This document provides different IPv6 link models that are suitable for IEEE 802.16 based networks and provides analysis of various considerations for each link model and the applicability of each link model under different deployment scenarios. This document is the result of a design team (DT) that was formed to analyze the IPv6 link models for IEEE 802.16 based networks. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4967 - Dial String Parameter for the Session Initiation Protocol Uniform Resource Identifier
RFC 3966 explicitly states that 'tel' URIs may not represent a dial string. That leaves no way specify a dial string in a standardized way. Great confusion exists with the SIP URI parameter "user=phone", and specifically, if it can represent a dial string. This memo creates a new value for the user parameter "dialstring", so that one may specify "user=dialstring" to encode a dial string as a 'sip:' or 'sips:' URI. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4966 - Reasons to Move the Network Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) to Historic Status
This document discusses issues with the specific form of IPv6-IPv4 protocol translation mechanism implemented by the Network Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) defined in RFC 2766. These issues are sufficiently serious that recommending RFC 2766 as a general purpose transition mechanism is no longer desirable, and this document recommends that the IETF should reclassify RFC 2766 from Proposed Standard to Historic status. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4965 - CableLabs - IETF Standardization Collaboration
This document describes the collaboration and liaison relationship between the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. (CableLabs). This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4964 - The P-Answer-State Header Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol for the Open Mobile Alliance Push to Talk over Cellular
This document describes a private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) header (P-header) used by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for Push to talk over Cellular (PoC) along with its applicability, which is limited to the OMA PoC application. The P-Answer-State header is used for indicating the answering mode of the handset, which is particular to the PoC application. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4963 - IPv4 Reassembly Errors at High Data Rates
IPv4 fragmentation is not sufficiently robust for use under some conditions in today's Internet. At high data rates, the 16-bit IP identification field is not large enough to prevent frequent incorrectly assembled IP fragments, and the TCP and UDP checksums are insufficient to prevent the resulting corrupted datagrams from being delivered to higher protocol layers. This note describes some easily reproduced experiments demonstrating the problem, and discusses some of the operational implications of these observations. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4962 - Guidance for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key Management
This document provides guidance to designers of Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) key management protocols. The guidance is also useful to designers of systems and solutions that include AAA key management protocols. Given the complexity and difficulty in designing secure, long-lasting key management algorithms and protocols by experts in the field, it is almost certainly inappropriate for IETF working groups without deep expertise in the area to be designing their own key management algorithms and protocols based on Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) protocols. The guidelines in this document apply to documents requesting publication as IETF RFCs. Further, these guidelines will be useful to other standards development organizations (SDOs) that specify AAA key management. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4961 - Symmetric RTP / RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
This document recommends using one UDP port pair for both communication directions of bidirectional RTP and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) sessions, commonly called "symmetric RTP" and "symmetric RTCP". This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4960 - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
This document obsoletes RFC 2960 and RFC 3309. It describes the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). SCTP is designed to transport Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) signaling messages over IP networks, but is capable of broader applications.
RFC4959 - IMAP Extension for Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) Initial Client Response
To date, the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) has used a Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) profile which always required at least one complete round trip for an authentication, as it did not support an initial client response argument. This additional round trip at the beginning of the session is undesirable, especially when round-trip costs are high.
RFC4958 - A Framework for Supporting Emergency Telecommunications Services (ETS) within a Single Administrative Domain
This document presents a framework discussing the role of various protocols and mechanisms that could be considered candidates for supporting Emergency Telecommunication Services (ETS) within a single administrative domain. Comments about their potential usage as well as their current deployment are provided to the reader. Specific solutions are not presented. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4957 - Link-Layer Event Notifications for Detecting Network Attachments
Certain network access technologies are capable of providing various types of link-layer status information to IP. Link-layer event notifications can help IP expeditiously detect configuration changes. This document provides a non-exhaustive catalogue of information available from well-known access technologies. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4956 - DNS Security (DNSSEC) Opt-In
In the DNS security (DNSSEC) extensions, delegations to unsigned subzones are cryptographically secured. Maintaining this cryptography is not always practical or necessary. This document describes an experimental "Opt-In" model that allows administrators to omit this cryptography and manage the cost of adopting DNSSEC with large zones. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4955 - DNS Security (DNSSEC) Experiments
This document describes a methodology for deploying alternate, non-backwards-compatible, DNS Security (DNSSEC) methodologies in an experimental fashion without disrupting the deployment of standard DNSSEC. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4954 - SMTP Service Extension for Authentication
This document defines a Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) extension whereby an SMTP client may indicate an authentication mechanism to the server, perform an authentication protocol exchange, and optionally negotiate a security layer for subsequent protocol interactions during this session. This extension includes a profile of the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) for SMTP.
RFC4953 - Defending TCP Against Spoofing Attacks
Recent analysis of potential attacks on core Internet infrastructure indicates an increased vulnerability of TCP connections to spurious resets (RSTs), sent with forged IP source addresses (spoofing). TCP has always been susceptible to such RST spoofing attacks, which were indirectly protected by checking that the RST sequence number was inside the current receive window, as well as via the obfuscation of TCP endpoint and port numbers. For pairs of well-known endpoints often over predictable port pairs, such as BGP or between web servers and well-known large-scale caches, increases in the path bandwidth-delay product of a connection have sufficiently increased the receive window space that off-path third parties can brute-force generate a viable RST sequence number. The susceptibility to attack increases with the square of the bandwidth, and thus presents a significant vulnerability for recent high-speed networks. This document addresses this vulnerability, discussing proposed solutions at the transport level and their inherent challenges, as well as existing network level solutions and the feasibility of their deployment. This document focuses on vulnerabilities due to spoofed TCP segments, and includes a discussion of related ICMP spoofing attacks on TCP connections. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4952 - Overview and Framework for Internationalized Email
Full use of electronic mail throughout the world requires that people be able to use their own names, written correctly in their own languages and scripts, as mailbox names in email addresses. This document introduces a series of specifications that define mechanisms and protocol extensions needed to fully support internationalized email addresses. These changes include an SMTP extension and extension of email header syntax to accommodate UTF-8 data. The document set also includes discussion of key assumptions and issues in deploying fully internationalized email. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4951 - Fail Over Extensions for Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) "failover"
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a connection-oriented protocol that has a shared state between active endpoints. Some of this shared state is vital for operation, but may be volatile in nature, such as packet sequence numbers used on the L2TP Control Connection. When failure of one side of a control connection occurs, a new control connection is created and associated with the old connection by exchanging information about the old connection. Such a mechanism is not intended as a replacement for an active fail over with some mirrored connection states, but as an aid for those parameters that are particularly difficult to have immediately available. Protocol extensions to L2TP defined in this document are intended to facilitate state recovery, providing additional resiliency in an L2TP network, and improving a remote system's layer 2 connectivity. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4950 - ICMP Extensions for Multiprotocol Label Switching
This memo defines an extension object that can be appended to selected multi-part ICMP messages. This extension permits Label Switching Routers to append MPLS information to ICMP messages, and has already been widely deployed. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4949 - Internet Security Glossary, Version 2
This Glossary provides definitions, abbreviations, and explanations of terminology for information system security. The 334 pages of entries offer recommendations to improve the comprehensibility of written material that is generated in the Internet Standards Process (RFC 2026). The recommendations follow the principles that such writing should (a) use the same term or definition whenever the same concept is mentioned; (b) use terms in their plainest, dictionary sense; (c) use terms that are already well-established in open publications; and (d) avoid terms that either favor a particular vendor or favor a particular technology or mechanism over other, competing techniques that already exist or could be developed. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4948 - Report from the IAB workshop on Unwanted Traffic March 9-10, 2006
This document reports the outcome of a workshop held by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) on Unwanted Internet Traffic. The workshop was held on March 9-10, 2006 at USC/ISI in Marina del Rey, CA, USA. The primary goal of the workshop was to foster interchange between the operator, standards, and research communities on the topic of unwanted traffic, as manifested in, for example, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, spam, and phishing, to gain understandings on the ultimate sources of these unwanted traffic, and to assess their impact and the effectiveness of existing solutions. It was also a goal of the workshop to identify engineering and research topics that could be undertaken by the IAB, the IETF, the IRTF, and the network research and development community at large to develop effective countermeasures against the unwanted traffic. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4947 - Address Resolution Mechanisms for IP Datagrams over MPEG-2 Networks
This document describes the process of binding/associating IPv4/IPv6 addresses with MPEG-2 Transport Streams (TS). This procedure is known as Address Resolution (AR) or Neighbor Discovery (ND). Such address resolution complements the higher-layer resource discovery tools that are used to advertise IP sessions.
RFC4946 - Atom License Extension
This memo defines an extension to the Atom Syndication Format for describing licenses associated with Atom feeds and entries. This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community.
RFC4945 - The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX
The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and Public Key Infrastructure for X.509 (PKIX) certificate profile both provide frameworks that must be profiled for use in a given application. This document provides a profile of IKE and PKIX that defines the requirements for using PKI technology in the context of IKE/IPsec. The document complements protocol specifications such as IKEv1 and IKEv2, which assume the existence of public key certificates and related keying materials, but which do not address PKI issues explicitly. This document addresses those issues. The intended audience is implementers of PKI for IPsec. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4944 - Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
This document describes the frame format for transmission of IPv6 packets and the method of forming IPv6 link-local addresses and statelessly autoconfigured addresses on IEEE 802.15.4 networks. Additional specifications include a simple header compression scheme using shared context and provisions for packet delivery in IEEE 802.15.4 meshes. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4943 - IPv6 Neighbor Discovery On-Link Assumption Considered Harmful
This document describes the historical and background information behind the removal of the "on-link assumption" from the conceptual host sending algorithm defined in Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). According to the algorithm as originally described, when a host's default router list is empty, the host assumes that all destinations are on-link. This is particularly problematic with IPv6-capable nodes that do not have off-link IPv6 connectivity (e.g., no default router). This document describes how making this assumption causes problems and how these problems outweigh the benefits of this part of the conceptual sending algorithm. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4942 - IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security Considerations
The transition from a pure IPv4 network to a network where IPv4 and IPv6 coexist brings a number of extra security considerations that need to be taken into account when deploying IPv6 and operating the dual-protocol network and the associated transition mechanisms. This document attempts to give an overview of the various issues grouped into three categories:
RFC4941 - Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6
Nodes use IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration to generate addresses using a combination of locally available information and information advertised by routers. Addresses are formed by combining network prefixes with an interface identifier. On an interface that contains an embedded IEEE Identifier, the interface identifier is typically derived from it. On other interface types, the interface identifier is generated through other means, for example, via random number generation. This document describes an extension to IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration for interfaces whose interface identifier is derived from an IEEE identifier. Use of the extension causes nodes to generate global scope addresses from interface identifiers that change over time, even in cases where the interface contains an embedded IEEE identifier. Changing the interface identifier (and the global scope addresses generated from it) over time makes it more difficult for eavesdroppers and other information collectors to identify when different addresses used in different transactions actually correspond to the same node. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4940 - IANA Considerations for OSPF
This memo creates a number of OSPF registries and provides guidance to IANA for assignment of code points within these registries. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4939 - Definitions of Managed Objects for iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service)
The iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service) protocol provides storage name service functionality on an IP network that is being used for iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) or iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol) storage. This document provides a mechanism to monitor multiple iSNS Servers, including information about registered objects in an iSNS Server. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4938 - PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE) Extensions for Credit Flow and Link Metrics
This document extends the Point-to-Point over Ethernet (PPPoE) Protocol with a credit-based flow control mechanism and Link Quality Metric report. This optional extension should improve the performance of PPPoE over media with variable bandwidth and limited buffering, such as mobile radio links. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4937 - IANA Considerations for PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
This document describes the IANA considerations for the PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) protocol. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4936 - Fibre Channel Zone Server MIB
This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes managed objects for information related to a Fibre Channel Zone Server. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4935 - Fibre Channel Fabric Configuration Server MIB
This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes managed objects for information related to the Fabric Configuration Server function of a Fibre Channel network. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4934 - Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) Transport Over TCP
This document describes how an Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) session is mapped onto a single Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection. This mapping requires use of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol to protect information exchanged between an EPP client and an EPP server. This document obsoletes RFC 3734. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4933 - Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) Contact Mapping
This document describes an Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) mapping for the provisioning and management of individual or organizational social information identifiers (known as "contacts") stored in a shared central repository. Specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML), the mapping defines EPP command syntax and semantics as applied to contacts. This document obsoletes RFC 3733. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4932 - Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) Host Mapping
This document describes an Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) mapping for the provisioning and management of Internet host names stored in a shared central repository. Specified in XML, the mapping defines EPP command syntax and semantics as applied to host names. This document obsoletes RFC 3732. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4931 - Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) Domain Name Mapping
This document describes an Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) mapping for the provisioning and management of Internet domain names stored in a shared central repository. Specified in XML, the mapping defines EPP command syntax and semantics as applied to domain names. This document obsoletes RFC 3731. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4930 - Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
This document describes an application layer client-server protocol for the provisioning and management of objects stored in a shared central repository. Specified in XML, the protocol defines generic object management operations and an extensible framework that maps protocol operations to objects. This document includes a protocol specification, an object mapping template, and an XML media type registration. This document obsoletes RFC 3730. [STANDARDS-TRACK]
RFC4929 - Change Process for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Protocols and Procedures
This document provides guidelines for applying or extending the MPLS or GMPLS ((G)MPLS) protocol suites and clarifies the IETF's (G)MPLS working groups' responsibility for the (G)MPLS protocols. This document is directed to multi-vendor fora and Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to provide an understanding of (G)MPLS work in the IETF and documents the requisite use of IETF review procedures when considering (G)MPLS applications or protocol extensions in their work. This document does not modify IETF processes. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4928 - Avoiding Equal Cost Multipath Treatment in MPLS Networks
This document describes the Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) behavior of currently deployed MPLS networks. This document makes best practice recommendations for anyone defining an application to run over an MPLS network that wishes to avoid the reordering that can result from transmission of different packets from the same flow over multiple different equal cost paths. These recommendations rely on inspection of the IP version number field in packets. Despite the heuristic nature of the recommendations, they provide a relatively safe way to operate MPLS networks, even if future allocations of IP version numbers were made for some purpose. This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
RFC4927 - Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCECP) Specific Requirements for Inter-Area MPLS and GMPLS Traffic Engineering
For scalability purposes, a network may comprise multiple Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) areas. An inter-area Traffic Engineered Label Switched Path (TE-LSP) is an LSP that transits through at least two IGP areas. In a multi-area network, topology visibility remains local to a given area, and a head-end Label Switching Router (LSR) cannot compute an inter-area shortest constrained path. One key application of the Path Computation Element (PCE)-based architecture is the computation of inter-area TE-LSP paths. The PCE Communication Protocol (PCECP) is used to communicate computation requests from Path Computation Clients (PCCs) to PCEs, and to return computed paths in responses. This document lists a detailed set of PCECP-specific requirements for support of inter-area TE-LSP path computation. It complements the generic requirements for a PCE Communication Protocol. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4926 - A URN Namespace for GEANT
This document describes a proposed URN (Uniform Resource Name) namespace that would be managed by DANTE, representing European Research and academic networks, for naming persistent resources defined by GEANT, the Consortium of European Academic and Research Networks, its projects, activities, working groups, and other designated subordinates. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4925 - Softwire Problem Statement
This document captures the problem statement for the Softwires Working Group, which is developing standards for the discovery, control, and encapsulation methods for connecting IPv4 networks across IPv6-only networks as well as IPv6 networks across IPv4-only networks. The standards will encourage multiple, inter-operable vendor implementations by identifying, and extending where necessary, existing standard protocols to resolve a selected set of "IPv4/IPv6" and "IPv6/IPv4" transition problems. This document describes the specific problems ("Hubs and Spokes" and "Mesh") that will be solved by the standards developed by the Softwires Working Group. Some requirements (and non-requirements) are also identified to better describe the specific problem scope. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4924 - Reflections on Internet Transparency
This document provides a review of previous IAB statements on Internet transparency, as well a discussion of new transparency issues. Far from having lessened in relevance, technical implications of intentionally or inadvertently impeding network transparency play a critical role in the Internet's ability to support innovation and global communication. This document provides some specific illustrations of those potential impacts. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4923 - Quality of Service (QoS) Signaling in a Nested Virtual Private Network
Some networks require communication between an interior and exterior portion of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or through a concatenation of such networks resulting in a nested VPN, but have sensitivities about what information is communicated across the boundary, especially while providing quality of service to communications with different precedence. This note seeks to outline the issues and the nature of the proposed solutions based on the framework for Integrated Services operation over Diffserv networks as described in RFC 2998. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4920 - Crankback Signaling Extensions for MPLS and GMPLS RSVP-TE
In a distributed, constraint-based routing environment, the information used to compute a path may be out of date. This means that Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Traffic Engineered (TE) Label Switched Path (LSP) setup requests may be blocked by links or nodes without sufficient resources. Crankback is a scheme whereby setup failure information is returned from the point of failure to allow new setup attempts to be made avoiding the blocked resources. Crankback can also be applied to LSP recovery to indicate the location of the failed link or node.
RFC4919 - IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs): Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals
This document describes the assumptions, problem statement, and goals for transmitting IP over IEEE 802.15.4 networks. The set of goals enumerated in this document form an initial set only. This memo provides information for the Internet community.
RFC4918 - HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) consists of a set of methods, headers, and content-types ancillary to HTTP/1.1 for the management of resource properties, creation and management of resource collections, URL namespace manipulation, and resource locking (collision avoidance).
RFC4917 - Mobile IPv4 Message String Extension
This document specifies a new extension for use in Mobile IPv4. This extension can be added by the Home Agent and the Foreign Agent to Registration Reply messages. This extension carries a text string that is intended for the user of the Mobile Node. [STANDARDS-TRACK]